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ethylbenzene to styrene

2021年01月02日

Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Then, a modified method is proposed to evaluate and optimize the energy consumption of the unit. Sluiten. As the hydrogen is one of the byproducts, injected oxygen to the first reactor would probably react with the EB, and the yield of SM reduced. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Figure 3. In 1938 Dow chemical began using the cracking of ethylbenzene with zinc oxide as the catalyst. The styrene production by dehydrogenation of EB takes place in radial fixed bed reactor at 885–920 K over the potassium-promoted iron catalyst. Enhanced performance of solid oxide electrolysis cells by integration with a partial oxidation reactor: Energy and exergy analyses, Mg–Fe–Al mixed oxides with mesoporous properties prepared from hydrotalcite as precursors: catalytic behavior in ethylbenzene dehydrogenation, Cu, Fe, or Ni doped molybdenum oxide supported on Al, Entropy production and exergy loss in experimental distillation columns, Exergy analysis of ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene monomer, Application of exergy analysis to improve the heat integration efficiency in a hydrocracking process. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over the catalyst in the presence of CO2 was considered to proceed both via a one-step pathway and via a two-step pathway. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. View or download all the content the society has access to. Original catalysts were Friedel–Crafts-type catalysts AlCl 3 –HCl and BF 3 /Al 2 O 3, and silica-SPA. Present day reactions are usually run at 600 to 650 C with a contact time of about 1 second between the feedstock and the catalyst. The effect of last parameter, pressure, is shown in Figures 3(b) and 4(b). It is shown that substitution of the present catalyst by FeAl-14 increases the exergetic efficiency of first and second reactors about 7% and 6%, respectively. Table 8. The injected oxygen reacts with hydrogen to produce steam. This dehydrogenation process involves the catalytic reaction of ethylbenzene. (a) On a basis of 100 kg/h styrene produced, calculate the required fresh ethylbenzene feed rate, the flow rate of recycled ethylbenzene… Coke Formation and Gasification in the Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene. The injected steam also performs three side reactions to convert the light hydrocarbons to CO2 (water gas shift reaction) and preventing the coke formation, In the second reactor, oxygen is injected into the reactor. SM is the valuable product of EB dehydrogenation; however, some materials are produced as byproducts. This monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is important in the petrochemical industry as an intermediate in the production of styrene, the precursor to polystyrene, a common plastic material. It is shown that three parameters are important in the study of reactors exergetic efficiency. The potential and kinetic exergy of streams are negligible compared to total exergy of the system. Dulamita N, Maicaneanu, A, Sayle DC, et al. It is seen that, at first, increasing the oxygen injection rate increases the mole fraction of SM; however, more injection of oxygen slightly decreases SM production. Investigation is also underway about the possibility of replacing the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with oxidative dehydrogenation. Due to the high energy consumption of the unit, exergy analysis was used to optimize the energy consumption of styrene production unit and associated fractionation unit. The schematic representation of the styrene production process is shown in Figure 1. Thus, it is expected to modify the equipment with little exergetic efficiency. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. The unit consists of three reactors (one of the reactors is a bypass reactor), four towers, a compressor, a heat exchanger (HX), and a flash tank. The catalytic activity of cobalt ferrite was compared with … The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene was studied in a tubular palladium membrane reactor using a commercial styrene catalyst. Therefore, six main reactions are considered for dehydrogenation process.28, According to the dehydrogenation of EB catalytic dual-site mechanism, EB is adsorbed in active sites of the catalyst, so the dehydrogenation is performed and styrene is produced along with hydrogen leaving the catalytic surface. The inner tube is … de Araujo, JCS, Sousa Ch, BA, Oliveira, AC. A yield of 90% is typical with 65% conversion on a per pass basis.7 The distillation train is run at low pressures in order to maintain low temperatures and avoid polymerization. Heat capacity parameters for each piece in the gas mixture.30. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. In this paper, exergetic analysis for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over a potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst for styrene monomer production is investigated. During the process, vaporized EB, recycled EB, and superheated steam are fed to the first catalytic reactor. ethylbenzene to styrene. of ethylbenzene to styrene by TEOM C. Nederlof,a P. Vijfhuizen,a V. Zarubina,b I. Melián-Cabrera,b F. Kapteijn,a and M. Makkee*a A packed bed microbalance reactor setup (TEOM-GC) is used to investigate the formation of coke as a function of time-on-stream on γ-Al 2O 3 and 3P/SiO 2 catalyst samples under different conditions for the Kinetic parameters of dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene monomer.29, Table 3. It is shown that using exergy analysis could improve the exergetic efficiency of the process and reduce the lost work of the unit. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. In the case of the second reactor, the oxygen injection provides the main part of reaction heat. An Fe2O3 (10 wt%)/Al2O3 (90 wt%) catalyst prepared by a coprecipitation method was found to be effective for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to produce styrene in the presence of CO2 instead of steam used in commercial processes. A mechanism is described indicating the role of the O2−–Fe 2019 Catalysis Science & Technology HOT Articles The rigorous heterogeneous model was used to study the effect of selective membranes for the removal of hydrogen on the conversion of ethylbenzene and yields of styrene, benzene, and … The energy required for producing styrene in the presence of CO 2 is 1.5 × 10 8 cal per t -styrene, which is 20% lower than that via one-step pathway estimated in our previous study. Figure 4. Effects of (a) operating temperature and (b) pressure on ethylbenzene conversion and exergetic efficiency of second reactor (Tref=650°C). The plant consists of two main sections: the reaction section and the fractionation section. As it can be seen from Table 7, the highest exergetic efficiency is obtained for the HX, compressor, and SM Tower, respectively. It was not until 1925 that commercial production of styrene commenced. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over a potassium-promoted iron oxide-based catalyst: a transient kinetic study. Table 7. Catalytic performance of Al‐MCM‐41‐supported vanadia catalysts (V/Al‐MCM‐41) with different V loading was investigated for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene (ST) with CO 2 (CO 2 ‐ODEB). They always go hand-in-hand and cannot be separated. The remainder of styrene produced is used for elastomers, thermoset plastics, and other products. Thermo-economic and exergy assessment and optimization of performance of a hydrogen production ... Exergetic analysis and pollutants emission from a rotary kiln system in a major cement manufact... Greenhouse gas emissions reduction by process intensification: Reactiv... Ecological security measurement and spatial-temporal difference evolut... Elnashaie, SSEH, Abdallah, BK, Elshishini, SS. 4. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Figure 7. Steam is then added before feeding the effluent into a train of 2 to 4 reactors. As the temperature varies during the process, the temperature-dependent heat capacity of components is given as follows, Table 2. The styrene monomer is polymerized using free-radical initiators primarily in bulk and suspension… Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation on Fe2O3-Cr2O3-K2CO3 catalysts promoted with transitional metal oxides. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) It is clear that the efficiency of Tol/Bez column is increased from 77.45 to 90.86. It is used primarily as an intermediate for styrene production and is also a natural component of petroleum products and incomplete combustion of natural substances, and is … The activity of a V2O5/TiO2–Al2O3 catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with various V2O5 loadings in the presence of CO2 and N2 was studied. It is shown that preheater, Tol/Bez column, and styrene production reactors consume the highest energy and must be optimized. It is easy. A mathematical model of the membrane reactor is … Ha ha ha. Styrene is a precursor to several industrial polymers, including acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, styrene-butadiene elastomers and … A distillation train recovers a benzene/toluene byproduct, a styrene product, a recycle ethylbenzene stream, and a residue stream. Ethylbenzene to Styrene using CO2 as a soft oxidant. The steam reacts with surface carbon to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen.4, Because of the large worldwide demand for styrene, a number of alternative catalysts are being actively investigated. Schematic of modified styrene production process.EB: ethylbenzene; SM: styrene monomer. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. {O2C-C6H4-CO2}) are capable of separating ethylbenzene and styrene. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Ahmad Taghizadeh Damanabi and Fatemeh Bahadori, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran. In addition, the output exergy/input exergy of the second reactor increases from 0.23 to 0.51 and Tol/Bez column increases from 0.82 to 0.96. The purpose of the study is to decrease the work loss in the process. By continuing to browse The temperature decreases along the reactor based on endothermic reaction, the outlet flow of the first reactor is thus injected into the second catalytic reactor with oxygen for performing oxidative reaction and a little part of superheated steam. It is used primarily as an intermediate for styrene production and is also a … A high reactivity with 40 % ethylbenzene conversion and 92 % styrene selectivity was obtained over the nanodiamond catalyst under oxygen‐lean conditions even after a 240 h test, demonstrating the potential of this procedure for application as a promising industrial process for the ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene without steam protection. Mathematical simulation of catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in a composite palladium membrane reactor, On the link between intrinsic catalytic reactions kinetics and the development of catalytic processes catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene, VOx supported SBA-15 catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in the presence of N, Catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in a zeolite silicalite-1 membrane reactor, Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over LaVOx/SBA-15 catalysts in the presence of carbon dioxide, Influence of the microstructure of carbon nanotubes on the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene, Heterogeneous modeling of an autothermal membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline: Fickian diffusion model, Review alternative processes for the production of styrene, Kinetics of the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over unpromoted and K-promoted model iron-oxide catalysts, Influence of carbon dioxide addition upon decay of activity of a potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene, Utilization of carbon dioxide as soft oxidant for oxy dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over V, Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with CO, Promoting effect of Fe in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with CO, Ethylbenzene to styrene over alkali doped TiO, Reduction of catalyst deactivation effects on styrene monomer production in multistage radial fixed bed reactor, Exergy analysis: An efficient tool for understanding and improving hydrogen production via the steam methane reforming process, Exergy analysis and optimization of a steam methane pre-reforming system, Review of thermal cycles exploiting the exergy of liquefied natural gas in the regasification process, Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications, Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production, Diagnosis of an alternative ammonia process technology to reduce exergy losses, Atmospheric impacts of the life cycle emissions of fuel ethanol in Brazil: based on chemical exergy, Energy and exergy analysis of a ground-coupled heat pump system with two horizontal ground heat exchangers, Simulation and optimization of an existing ethylbenzene dehydrogenation reactor, Energy and exergy analysis of a steam power plant in Jordan. These plastics are commonly used in toys, television shells, and insulation foam. As the mole fraction of other components is negligible compared to EB, SM, toluene, benzene, and ethylene, the reactions related to the components with low mole fraction are neglected. Emad Ali, Mohamed Hadj-Kali, Energy efficiency analysis of styrene production by adiabatic ethylbenzene dehydrogenation using exergy analysis and heat integration, Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, … A solution to this challenge is improving the catalyst properties to decrease the reaction temperature. It is a highly flammable, colorless liquid with an odor similar to that of gasoline. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Since the fractionation of toluene and benzene is an azeotropic distillation, temperature variation was not chosen as a variable. It is evident that increasing the temperature significantly increases the conversion of the reactor, while decreases the exergetic efficiency. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. Figure 5(a) and (b) shows the effects of oxygen injection rate on the mole fraction of SM, water, hydrogen, and duty of the second reactor. The other method for decreasing the exergy loss in distillation column has been proposed by De Koeijera and Rivero.41 They have suggested that an HX was associated with each tray (diabatic distillation) and have shown that exergy loss is reduced by 39%, while the exergy loss improvement in this paper is 87.4%. This produces water as a byproduct as is therefore an exothermic reaction. Potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst (SM5) is used for styrene production in the reactors. 4 Feed ratios of steam to ethylbenzene are typically between 10 and 15. Okay, right hand is very important. Styrene is an important precursor to polystyrene, an important synthetic material. Styrene monomer (SM) is a valuable material and extensively used in the petrochemical industry to produce polystyrene, styrene–butadiene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, and styrene–acrylonitrile copolymers.1–7 Several processes are proposed for styrene production. / Kovacevic, M.; Lefferts, Leonardus. EB: ethylbenzene. Effects of (a) operating temperature and (b) pressure on ethylbenzene conversion and exergetic efficiency of first reactor (Tref=650°C).

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